The Divine Queens

Rosmertâ and Nantosueltâ are seen as the Divine Queens. Rosmertâ is the Queen of the Field and Lady of the Harvest while Nantosueltâ is the Queen of the Valley and the Lady of the Vine. They are associated with the autumn and spring respectively.

Rosmertâ

Rosmertâ is associated with mead, crops such as grain and fruit, and the weaver’s beam. She is usually depicted with a cornucopia or sack, which I view as part of her role as the Great Provider. She is also Queen of the war-band, as well as a Goddess of sovereignty and of luck. She is the wife of Lugus. She shares the wealth of the Earth through her cornucopia and sacks of grain. Rosmertâ is the Skilled Weaver who weaves the fates of all on her beam.

In Proto-Indo-European war-bands, which were known as kóryos, the leader of the war-band was chosen through a dice game and the results were seen as being the Will of the Gods. As Rosmertâ is syncretized with the Roman Goddess of luck, Fortuna, I believe that she may have had a role in deciding the new leader of the war-band. This also ties into her role as the Patroness of the uelitâ or seeress that would grant legitimacy to rulers and leaders through a ritual where the uelitâ would have them drink the Mead of Sovereignty. She would chose the leader of the war-band and the oaths of loyalty would be sworn through Lugus.

As Lady of the Harvest, it is through Rosmertâ that the bounty of the Earth is collected and shared with the people. When leaves change colour, apples ripen on the branch, and the weather becomes cooler, it means that the Queen of the Field is preparing the Earth for winter. It is in this role that she is the Divine Queen of Autumn, counterpart to Nantosueltâ the Divine Queen of Spring.

While not attested as a Goddess of the Hunt, Rosmertâ is involved indirectly with hunting and gathering as her bounty extends beyond the field into nature itself. She bestows luck on the hunter so that they can better track their prey, ensuring that they are successful in bringing home meat for their family. She watches over foragers and teaches the difference between edible and toxic plants, which are safe to harvest and which are not.

Nantosueltâ

Nantosueltâ is typically depicted holding a pole with a house on it as well as a bowl or a beehive in her other hand. There is usually a crow with her as well and she is often shown wearing some kind of diadem. There are often round objects at her feet which seem to be honeycombs. Wife of Sucellos, she is the Queen of Antumnos. She is also the mother of Rosmertâ and Entarabos. She is the Life Mother, the Death Mother, our first and last friend.

The land of the dead in which the Queen of the Valley reigns is one of sprawling meadows, meandering streams, and a vast vineyard. As Rosmertâ is the Great Provider in life, so too is Nantosueltâ in death. The house perched on her staff indicates that she is a caretaker and protector of the home however her other symbolism reveals that this home is not the one we reside in while we are alive. Her realm is bordered by the two Great Rivers, the one crossed during death and the one crossed during birth. She cares for the weary souls who enter her realm beneath the earth, providing ample food and drink while they rest. When they are ready to return to this world in their next life, Nantosueltâ guides them to the second river to aid in their rebirth.

As mentioned earlier, Nantosueltâ is often accompanied by a crow who are seen as divine messengers and symbols of death. Crow are scavengers and carrion birds who would have often been seen on battlefields and other places where death would occur, which lead people to believe that the crows themselves were omens. As such she, like Rosmertâ, may have had some ties to prophecy as Druids would study the flight of birds, including crows, to divine the future. It is through the strong ties to crows which reinforces the idea of Nantosueltâ being associated with death.

In contrast to Rosmertâ, Nantosueltâ as the Divine Queen of Spring is due to her association with beehives and honeycombs. Though most of her symbolism is that of death, the inclusion of pollinators like bees shows that she is a Goddess of Rebirth. Life would not exist without pollinators, especially bees, as they are crucial for the continuation of all plant life on earth. It is in the spring, when life returns to the Earth that bees begins their busy task of spreading pollen from one plant to another, continuing their cycle of reproduction and ensuring that there will be a harvest come the autumn.

It is through the bee symbolism that there is a link that indicates Nantosueltâ as being the mother of Rosmertâ. She is the beginning and Rosmertâ is the end of the cycle. Nantosueltâ’s beehives in her apiary and the vines from her vineyard provide the honey and grapes that Rosmertâ ferments into alcohol. The crops pollinated by Nantosueltâ’s bees are harvested by Rosmertâ. The messages sent on the wings of Nantosueltâ’s crows are interpreted by Rosmertâ and relayed to the people. What the mother begins, the daughter finishes.

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The Three-Faced Wanderer

Lugus is associated with ravens, bags of coins, lyres, and spears. Husband to Rosmertâ, Lugus aids her with the harvest during the autumn. He is usually depicted with three faces which makes him a God of Knowledge, as he sees the past, present and future all at once and may be called upon when seeking advise or aid in a creative endeavor. As many of the Dêuoi were absorbed into the enigmatic “Gaulish Mercury“, Lugus may have been one such being.

Lugus is the Master of All Skills. Forging the destinies of all who live as he forges his Great Spear. Lugus bestows the gifts of creativity and wisdom to those skilled enough to use them, even if they do not realize it themselves. He also sends omens, on written on the wings of ravens, for those with the abilities to read his prophecies.

The Inventor of the Arts, Lugus is skilled in all manner of artistic abilities and shares those skills with the people. God of Arts, Lugus creates beauty in the world around us and may be called upon when working on an artistic project. He may be credited with investing the lyre that Gaulish bards were fond of playing.

He is a guardian of travellers and merchants, keeping wanderers safe as he himself wanders the land. Ruler over commerce, he ensures that business is conducted fairly and free of deception. Pacts made by invoking Lugus are as binding as chains, for to go back on an oath is to anger the God himself.

He is a wandering God, with Lugus is only one of his names. There is very little evidence for him in archeology so it is possible that this is a name that he uses now but may have gone by another in the past. As the most we have is the Roman name of “Mercury”, as well as several other Gods who could fit that title, anything written about Lugus will be heavily based in gnosis.

Sources:

  1. Lugus – Segomâros Widugeni in Nemeton Segomâros http://polytheist.com/segomaros/2015/07/13/lugus/
  2. Lugus: the Many Gifted Lord – Alexei Kondratiev https://web.archive.org/web/20201106052850/http://www.imbas.org/articles/lugus.html
  3. tThe Gods of Gaul and the Continental Celts – J. A. MacCulloch https://worldspirituality.org/gods-of-gaul-html
  4. https://nouiogalatis.org/2019/12/27/deuoi-gods/